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Periodontal diseases are infectious diseases caused by bacteria, present in mouth. The most important causative factor is Dental Plaque, which is soft deposit present on teeth, due to lack of proper cleaning of teeth. Many other factors contribute such as food lodgment, improper brushing habits, improper shape and size of teeth, faulty dental restorations and treatment procedures.Abnormal habits such as thumb sucking, lounge thrusting and mouth breathing, faulty nutrition and food habits and few debilitating diseases e.g. diabetics, hypertension, mental retardation, blood disorders, conditions such as pregnancy, menopause, puberty etc.


Periodontal disease can affect any individual of any age, sex, race and community at any time in life, but these are some risk factors or behaviors, which increase the susceptibility of an individual to get this disease and can modify the winze of disease to a more aggressive and rapidly deteriorating form. These are smoking, diabetes, old age, pregnancy, family history of similar problem, hypertension.The worst fact about the periodontal disease is that the disease is very slow in onset, progression and hardly cause any symptoms or problems in the initial stages.

The problem which appears is that, the disease which could have been reverted with just a bit of enhanced care effort, is so much spread in the month, that patient is left with only fewer, more complicated, more extensive and expensive treatment options to save his teeth. Treatments for periodontal diseases do exist, and have miraculous results, but intervention vary according to the stage of disease at which the patient presents to the doctor.

1. Initial Stage

Therapy is simple, non-surgical and less extensive. The disease too is totally reversible mostly at this stage. Professional oral prophylaxis i.e. scaling and polishing will be the treatment of choice; along with enhanced oral hygiene maintenance on the part of patient.

2. Moderate Stage

A little more extensive procedure generally known as Gingival Curettage or deep scaling can be helpful and these are good chances of healing of tissues to their stage of health.

3. Advanced Stage

At this stage, Treatment has to be surgical, along with basic phase of scaling, polishing maintenance. Many periodontal surgical procedures depending on the type of disease are available.

  1. Gingivectomy : A minor surgery done under local anesthesia for enlarged and malformed gums to enhance the health and beauty of smile.
  2. Flap Surgery: A minor surgical procedure where tooth root is cleaned of all the infectious material and diseased tissues after raising a small part of overlying gums under LA.
  3. Periodontal Bone Grafting Procedures: Flap surgery combined with the placement of various natural and artificial bone, where the tooth has been severely weakened by bone loss by periodontal disease.
  4. Guided Tissue Regenerations: Where in some artificial barrier materials are used with purpose of stimulating bone growth in a guided manner.
  5. Muco gingival surgeries (perso plastic procedure): These surgical procedures are aimed at either enhancing the esthetics of mouth by enlarging tooth root coverage etc. or to enhance the successful outcome of rest of periodontal surgical procedure.
4. Terminal Stage

It is the stage, where tooth is diseased beyond the limits and support has weakened to such an extent that it can no longer survive in the existing bone. Here comes the last resort of extraction of the tooth, which will be replaced by Dental Implant which is a synthetic substitute which is anchored to the jaw bone to replace the tooth and preserve the surrounding bone. In the end of this article, I hope that my effort of writing the same will definitely create some awareness about the periodontal disease, its prevention and treatment; and the importance of routine dental examination and professional prophylaxis. No doubt, the disease is wide spread, destructive and affecting almost the whole mankind, but if the solution is such an easy one that a little more awareness care effort of twice daily brushing and a routine dental examination can save our teeth from such a deadly disease, then why not come a step further to incorporate for these two healthy practices in to our lives. Happy Brushing and check up visit to a dentist. Wish a very healthy long life to 32 pearls of your smile and long live the smile.